Abstract: Optical imaging through the intact mouse skull is challenging because of skull-induced aberrations and scattering. We found that three-photon excitation provided improved optical sectioning compared with that obtained with two-photon excitation, even when we used the same excitation wavelength and imaging system. Here we demonstrate three-photon imaging of vasculature through the adult mouse skull at >500-μm depth, as well as GCaMP6s calcium imaging over weeks in cortical layers 2/3 and 4 in awake mice, with 8.5 frames per second and a field of view spanning hundreds of micrometers.

Authors: Tianyu Wang, Dimitre G. Ouzounov, Chunyan Wu, Nicholas G. Horton, Bin Zhang, Cheng-Hsun Wu, Yanping Zhang, Mark J. Schnitzer & Chris Xu